References

A list of clinical studies & references completed on our product

PSCO-524 relieves pain and swelling of arthritis

  • Gibson, S. L. M., & Gibson, R. G. (1998). The treatment of arthritis with a lipid extract of Perna canaliculus; a randomised trial. Complimentary Therapies in Medicine, 6, pp. 122-126.
  • Halpern, G. M. (2000). Anti-inflammatory effects of a stabilized lipid extract of Perna canaliculus. Allergie and Immunology, 32. pp. 272–278.
  • Whitehouse, M. W., Macrides, T. A., Kalafatis, N. (1997). Anti-inflammatory activity of a lipid fraction from the N. Z. green-lipped mussel. Inflammopharmacology, 5, pp. 237–246.
  • Whitehouse, M. W., Roberts, M. S., & Brooks, P. M. (1999). Over-the-counter (OTC) oral remedies for arthritis and rheumatism: how effective are they? Inflammopharmacology, 7, pp. 89–105.
  • Zawakzki, M., Janosch, C., Szechinski, J. (2013). Perna canaliculus lipid complex PCSO-524® demonstrated pain relief for osteoarthritis patients benchmarked against fish oil, a randomized trial, without placebo control. Marine Drugs, 11, pp. 1920-1935. doi: 10.3390/md11061920

PSCO-524 does not cause bleeding

  • Hooper, S. (1998). The Effect of Marine Oils on Markers of Thrombosis in the Blood of Healthy Females. BASc (Hons) Thesis, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia.

PSCO-524 does not cause stomach irritation

  • Rainsford, K. D., & Whitehouse, M. W. (1980). Gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) preparation. Arzneimittelforschung, 30(12), pp. 2128-2132.

PSCO-524 a more potent anti-inflammatory than prescription drugs

  • Gibson, S. L. M., & Gibson, R. G. (1998). The treatment of arthritis with a lipid extract of Perna canaliculus; a randomised trial. Complimentary Therapies in Medicine, 6, pp. 122-126.
  • Halpern, G. M. (2000). Anti-inflammatory effects of a stabilized lipid extract of Perna canaliculus. Allergie and Immunology, 32. pp. 272–278.
  • Halpern, G. M. (2005). The Inflammation Revolution. Garden City, NY: Square One Publishers.
  • Whitehouse, M. W., Macrides, T. A., Kalafatis, N. (1997). Anti-inflammatory activity of a lipid fraction from the N. Z. green-lipped mussel. Inflammopharmacology, 5, pp. 237–246.
  • Whitehouse, M. W., Roberts, M. S., & Brooks, P. M. (1999). Over-the-counter (OTC) oral remedies for arthritis and rheumatism: how effective are they? Inflammopharmacology, 7, pp. 89–105.

PSCO-524 reduces severity of asthma

  • Emelyanov, A., Fedoseev, G., Krasnoschekova, O., Abulimity, A., Trendeleva, T., & Barnes, P. J. (2002). Treatment of asthma with lipid extract of New Zealand green-lipped mussel: a randomised clinical trial. European Respiratory Journal, 20, pp. 596-600. doi 10.1183/09031936.02.02632001
  • Lello, J., Liang, A., Robinson, E., Leutenegger, D., & Wheat, A. (2012). Treatment of children's asthma with a lipid extract of the New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) (Lyprinol®) - a double blind, randomised controlled trial in children with moderate to severe chronic obstructive asthma. The Internet Journal of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, 8(1). doi: 10.5580/2baa

Improve exercise performance

  • Baum, K., Telford, R. D., & Cunningham, R. B. (2013). Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30km run. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, (4), pp. 109-115. doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S41706
  • Mickleborough, T. D., Vaughn, C. L., Shei R. J., Davis, E. M., & Wilhite, D. P. (2013). Marine lipid fraction PCSO-524 (Lyprinol®/Omega XL®) of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel attenuates hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. Respiratory Medicine. doi.org/10.1016/j.med.2013.04.010
  • Whitehouse, M. W., Macrides, T. A., & Kalafatis, N. (1997). Anti-inflammatory activity of a lipid fraction (Lyprinol®) from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel. Inflammopharmacology, 5, pp. 237-246.

Fish oil adverse side effects and reactions

Fish oil causes bleeding

  • Bang, H. O., Dyerberg, J., Hjoorne, N. (1976). The composition of food consumed by Greenland Eskimos. Acta Medica Scandinavic, 200, pp. 69-73.
  • Dyerberg, J., Bang, H. O. (1979). Homeostatic function and platelet polyunsaturated fatty acids in eskimos. The Lancet, 2, pp. 433-435.
  • Gabriel, D. A., Reece, N. S., Li, X., Witte, J. H., Mega, K. M. (1993). Electrophoretic light scattering studies on the interaction of fibrinogen with resting and activated human platelets. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 4, pp. 397–403.
  • Grottum, K. A. (1969). Platelet surface charge and aggregation. Effects of polyelectrolytes. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 21, pp. 450-462.
  • Heemskerk, J. W., Figgie, M. A., Kalafusz, R., Hornstra. G. (1989). Influence of dietary fatty acids on membrane fluidity and activation of rat platelets. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1004, pp. 252-260.
  • Kitagawa, S., Endo, J., Kametani, F. (1984). Effects of four types of reagents on ADP-induced aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization of bovine blood platelets. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 798, pp. 210-215.
  • Kitagawa, S., Nishitama, H., Kametani, F. (1984). Inhibition of ADP-induced aggregation of bovine platelets by saturated fatty acids and its relation with the change of membrane surface charge. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 775, pp. 197–202.
  • Kitagawa, S., Kotani, K., Kametani, F. (1990). Inhibitory mechanism of cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids on platelet aggregation: the relation with their effects on Ca2+ mobilization, cyclic AMP levels and membrane fluidity. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta, 1054, pp.114-118.
  • Sato, T., Nakao, K., Hashizume, T., Fuji, T. (1987). Inhibition of platelet aggregation by unsaturated fatty acids through interference with a thromboxane-mediated process. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 931, pp.157-164.
  • Sato, T., Hashizume, T., Nakao, K., Akiba, S., Fuji, T. (1989). Platelet desensitization by arachidonic acid is associated with the suppression of endoperoxide/thromboxane A2 binding to the membrane receptor. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 992, pp.168-173.

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